Frequently Asked Questions

Provided below are a selection of questions we are commonly asked about our recording and stimulator systems. If your question cannot be answered with the information provided here, please contact us directly at so that we may personally assist you.

W - Series

Q: Are the W-Series products capable of motion tracking?

A: Yes, with the optional LEDs, available in blue, red, and green combinations, it is easy to track animal movement.


Q: Can TBSI provide a different connector for a wireless headstage than the standard?

A: We have some flexibility as long as the connector can line up to the pins on our printed circuit board (PCB). We would need a schematic of your connector to determine the answer.


Q: How do I interface the recording system with my A/D board?

A: We can provide a cable to connect the receiver's DB-37 connector to the your Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) board. Many options and cable lengths are available.


Q: Does metal in and around the cage affect the transmission reliability?

A: Sometime, yes. The ideal cage setup is plastic or Plexiglas with very few or small metal objects around the cage. The effects on the transmission will vary lab to lab since cage size and lab room metal objects will vary. The worst place to operate the system is within a Faraday Cage, where all sides are shielded with metal screening and the transmitter and receiver antennas are placed inside. The cage setup may cause one or several channels to pick up noise, which may change depending on the transmitter location and position. TBSI does offer Radio Frequency (RF) absorbing foam to be placed inside and around the cage to help reduce the effects of RF signal reflections.


Q: What kind of batteries are available for transmitters?

A: TBSI stocks a variety of capacity (maHr) rechargeable Li-Ion batteries, each with a different size and weight. Browse our external batteries brochure for more information.


Q: How many radio transmitters can work simultaneously in the same environment?

A: As of now, TBSI offers a dual radio headstage system that will allow 2 different headstages to transmit with 2 separate frequencies (referred to as F1 and F2) in the same cage. Its our objective to improve to at least 3 and 4 frequencies in the next 2 years.

M - Series

Q: How many wires are used in a 210 channel environment?

A: The M-Series 210 channel system will have only 10 wires to provide great opportunities for neural experimentation at an affordable cost.


Q: What is the input noise level for M-Series headstages?

A: Input referred noise is 11uV/sqrt(Hz). This is about 25uVrms noise.


Q: Can amplifiers be used in a bipolar (differential) configuration?

A: Our headstages use only single ended amplifiers (not differential), however you can use 2 channels to record differential inputs. The common mode rejection ration is about -68 dB.


Q: Is there a maximum cable length of the tethered multiplexer cable?

A: We recommend a maximum cable length from the multiplexer headstage to the de-multiplexer receiver to be no more than 6 feet. However, cables from the output of the receiver can be over 20 feet.

T - Series

Q: Is the T-Series 8 channel gain 2 model equipped with a bandpass filter?

A: No, but it is available for the G20, G100, and G1000. This is so that the DC offset due to the electrode contact potentials do not rail the amplifier.


Q: Is there a maximum cable length of the tethered headstage cable?

A: We recommend a maximum cable length from any tethered headstage to the tethered headstage receiver to be no more than 8 feet. However, cables from the output of the receiver can be over 20 feet.


Q: Can LEDs be added to the tethered headstages for video tracking?

A: Yes. We can add red, green, or blue LEDs or LED sockets to the headstages for an additional fee.


Q: What are the power supply voltages required for the tethered headstages?

A: +/ 2.5 volts with a 0 volt ground is typically used. The headstages will also work at +/- 1.65 volts.

S - Series

Q: Which electrode impedances are recommended for stimulation?

A: We recommend low impedance electrodes at less than 20 kOhms. This will allow for larger current to flow in and out of the tissue over a maximum voltage range. Our stimulator will work with 500 kOhm or 1 MOhm electrodes. However, the current becomes very small due to the maximum voltage range limitation of 16 volts.


Q: Can the wireless stimulator work with the wireless recorder headstage?

A: Since, the RF frequencies are different between the wireless stimulator and recording headstages,  both can be operated on the same animal simultaneously. We must point out though that during the stimulation, an electrical artifact will usually cause the recording channels to be railed or maximally outputted. However, once the stimulation artifact is gone, the record channels settle very fast (~ 100us).


Q: Can a stimulator and a recording headstage operate on the same electrode?

A: Yes, the electrode interface board (EIB) can be designed to route stimulator and recording channels to the same electrode.



Triangle BioSystems International is a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard Bioscience